Articles - year 2014

Discursive no man's land: Analysing the discourse of the rural in the transitional Czech Republic

This paper presents an analysis of the expert discourse of the rural in the period of transition in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic. Before 1989, the discourse was monopolised by the governing communist regime. With EU accession in 2004, the discourse became standardised to the EU programmes and policies. The period in between these two dates is referred to as “discursive no man's land” in which new meanings, functions and values were assigned to the rural. The paper concentrates on (a) how the rural was established as a public issue to be addressed by experts, (b) how the discourses of the rural changed under the influence of structural, macro-social factors and (c) what were the grounds on which state intervention in favour of the rural was perceived as legitimate. In answering these questions, the analysis identifies agriculture as a key element which provided a “function” for the pre-1989 instrumental understanding of the rural. After the collapse of the regime and the rapid shrinking of the agricultural sector in the country, the discourses of the rural took two paths. First, experts were looking for “new functions” of the rural, which came to be seen in cultural alternatives to urban modernity. Second, the figure of “rural renewal” emerged, aiming to rectify the perceived wrongdoings of the past.

Pospěch, P.

Journal of Rural Studies, 2014, Vol. 34, s. 96-107

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Support of Strengthening Cooperation and Efficiency Factors Accelerating Innovation Processes in the Food industry

The paper deals with the evaluation sub-measures of the “Cooperation for development of new products, processes and technologies, respectively the innovation in the food industry”. It is a sub-measure under the Rural Development Plan (I. 1.3.2). The rating refers to the current programming period, but it was made in the context of a preparation of the new programming for 2014-2020. Strengthening of the cooperation and efficiency factors accelerating the innovation processes in food can act as a tool to gain competitive advantage for the future. It was based on the on-line survey on innovation in food companies, which are mainly in addition of supporting the product and process innovation demonstrating the effectiveness of the promotion of energy-reducing effects, increasing productivity and improving systems of logistics and distribution. The survey is indicative only. Therefore, the survey was completed as an analysis of the approved and paid projects on the measure and interview. The e support enables the participating businesses to reduce debts; it shows, however a need of the simplification and shortening of the administration of request, especially by small enterprises.

Mezera, J., Němec, R., Špička, J.

Agricultural Economics – Czech 60, 2014 (7): IV–V, s. 295-300, ISSN 01399-570X

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The role of agri-environmental contracts in saving biodiversity in the post-socialist Czech Republic

Agri-Environmental Schemes are a voluntary policy measure of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union. Since 2004, these have been implemented in the post-socialist new Member States. Agri-Environmental Schemes could help to achieve a higher level of biodiversity on agricultural land. We focus here specifically on protected landscapes. In particular, we analyse whether such types of contracts between farmers and state organisations represent a useful tool in the protection of shared natural resources, such as biodiversity. We analyse the determinants that allow for such a policy to be implemented more successfully. In addition, the administrative structure of such a policy measure is very complex since responsibilities overlap among various administrative units, and transactions between farmers and governmental bodies need to be regulated. Cooperation among so many parties is challenging. The aim of this article is to clarify the impact of some contract characteristics on its effectiveness. We analyse why implementation has been easier in some Protected Landscape Areas (PLAs) than in others. The research focuses on selected factors which showed differences in performance. In particular, these factors are trust and reciprocity between farmers and state administrative bodies, information spreading and the availability of advisory services. Despite the demanding implementation process, we find an indication that trust tends to grow following a previous good experience. The case study was carried out in two large and two small PLAs in the Czech Republic.

Pražan, J., Theesfeld, I.

International Journal of the Commons, 2014, Vol. 8, No 1, February 2014, p. 1–25, URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1-116079, ISSN 1875-0281

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Sustainable development of agriculture – role of farmer

In the last several years the politicians and researchers have discussed the necessity of sustainability in the agriculture and rural development. During this time many politics and supports have been concentrated on both of these areas. The aim of these discussions and supports is to motivate farmers to keep farming sustainable in all three main aspects (i.e. social, ecological and economic). Unfortunately, the Czech methodology to answer the following question has not been prepared yet: “What farmer fulfills the concept of sustainable development?”
For a successful implementation of principles of the sustainable agriculture on the farms it is important to answer this question and provide farmers with a tool to assess the level of sustainability of their farming and improve it after that.
This paper is aimed to introduce the Czech IDEA method based on the French IDEA method enabling to assess if a Czech farmer fulfills the concept of sustainable development. The French IDEA method was created for self-assessment of sustainable principles of French farmers on their farms mainly. Main modifications for the Czech agriculture were based on the sources accessible in the Czech Republic compared to the French original ones, and on the expert evaluation of the information available due to the used indicators. Finally, the use of the method is demonstrated on the group of Czech farms. The data were collected mainly by the questionnaires in the Internal Research Project of the Czech Institute of Agricultural Economics and Information in 2012.

Mrnuštík Konečná, M.

Auspicia, 2014, Vol. 1, s. 114-130

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Analysis of Development of Czech Foreign Trade in Foods and Beverages

The aim of this paper is to analyse the development of Czech foreign trade in food products and beverages (CPA groups 10 and 11) and to evaluate the position of individual CPA groups and their products, even within the EU, using two indices of comparative advantage (RCA) and trade balances. The purpose is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the given issue as the analytical work dealing with whole Czech agrarian foreign trade is less focused on foods and drinks. The sources of data on foreign trade are public databases of Czech Statistical Office and Eurostat. Regarding the time series, period of the years 2005-2013 is analysed. Significant changes in the sales and purchases of foodstuff and beverages were occurred in the context of accession to the EU but these changes are not in focus yet. Czech imports of food products and beverages in the years 2005-2013 increased in the larger extent than exports, and negative trade balance deepened by 51 % to 29.3 Bn CZK. The degree of coverage of imports by exports, however, improved from 73.0 % to 77.3 % due to lower dynamics of growth of imports than exports. Besides of the own assessment of the Czech food and beverage foreign trade, our work has consisted in specific transfer of the Combined Nomenclature to the nomenclature CPA. The methodological contribution is then our own list of customs codes, respectively their aggregations, belonging to the individual CPA disciplines. This should be useful for next analysis.

Pohlová, K., Mezera, J.

Agris on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2014, Vol. VI, Issue 4, p. 121-131, ISSN 1804-1930

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Development and analysis of nutritional assessment of food consumption in the Czech Republic

The analysis of long-term development of nutritional assessment shows that the most significant changes occurred in the early post-revolutionary years, in the next period the changes were less significant. This development closely related to the most significant change in total consumption (increase in vegetable consumption and decrease in consumption of animal products), as well as to the consumption of a particular food assortment. Cereal products have the highest share of energy intake and this share is growing. There is considerable change in the development of protein intake: the proportion of protein from meat moved into the second place while the share of proteins from cereals moved in the first place in the total protein intake. Total fat intake has decreased significantly, share from fat–foods is in the first place in the present. Cereal products have the highest share of carbohydrate intake throughout the period and this share is increasing. Total iron intake is provided particularly by cereal products (share is growing), the meat occupies the second place (share is falling). The main sources of calcium are milk and dairy products. Intake of vitamin A is covered mainly by milk and dairy products, vegetables and meat. Vitamin B1 is received mainly from cereal products, vitamin B2 from milk products. Intake of vitamin C is ensured by fruit and vegetables, for which the share of total income grows, and potatoes, which share drops.

Štiková, O., Mrhálková, I.

Výživa a potraviny, 2014, Vol. 69, Issue 1, January 2014, p. 5-9

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The total consumption of food and beverages in the past 20 years (1992-2012)

The development of food consumption reflected the socio-economic factors, particularly changes of effective demand and in life priorities and attitudes. The result of these changes in consumption led to lower consumption of animal foods and increase consumption of foods of plant origin. Food consumption expressed in constant prices increased by 4.0%, while reducing the consumption of animal products by 7.2% and increase the consumption of plant products by 20.2%. The highest reduction in consumption occurred in beef, lard, drinking milk, eggs and bread, while an increase in consumption, particularly in soft drinks, poultry, cheeses, tropical fruits, pulses and wheat bread. This trend in consumption is not detrimental either in terms of nutritional requirements.

Štiková, O.

Výživa a potraviny, 2014, Vol. 69, Issue 4, November 2014, p. 86-89

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New agricultural policy in sugar sector

The paper assesses the current situation on the sugar market in the EU, Czech Republic and other major regions of the world. The year 2013 brought a number of changes in the EU sugar sector, or rather in its sugar-producing member states; the changes aim at functioning of the EU sugar market and its member states from 2015 to 2020. Given the growing potential of sugar beet in relation to sugarcane, the current negotiations are aimed at creating optimal conditions for the sugar sector to support the competitiveness of European sugar.

Baudisová, H.

Listy cukrovarnické a řepařské, 2014, Vol. 130, Issue 7-8, August 2014, p. 220-230, ISSN 1210-3306

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Trends on the vegetable market in the Czech Republic and European Union in 2013

The article describes the development of production of vegetable in Czech Republic and European Union. There is a detailed view on production of tomatoes in European Union and garlic in Spain in 2013. The prediction of world production of tomatoes in 2014 is included. The analysis is focused on onion, cucumber, cabbage and watermelons in the Czech Republic. In the article were analysed data from Czech and foreign professional sources.

Menzlová, J.

Zahradnictví, Vol. XIII, Issue 09/2014, p. 23-24 (Part I.), ISSN1213-7596

Zahradnictví, Vol. XIII, Issue 10/2014, p. 26-28 (Part II.), ISSN1213-7596


Economics of pig meat production – position of the Czech Republic within the EU

The paper deals with international comparison of pig production costs and revenues in 12 European countries and 3 overseas countries in years 2009-2011. The results are based on InterPIG data. Main cost items and natural productivity indicators were explored to clarity the differences among EU countries. The economics of pig production is highly influenced by nutrition, animal health, efficiency indicators, technology and management. Price is another important factor, nevertheless is not controlled by farmer. Price importance in pig economics indicate, that despite very good productivity results in some countries in years 2009-2011, the profitability was negative. Rise in prices help to profitability improvement in all countries in 2012. Austria, Belgium and Spain realize a profit in 2012. Pig production was unprofitable in the Czech Republic, the results was comparable with results in France, Germany or Great Britain.

Boudný, J., Janotová, B.

Náš chov, 2014, Vol. LXXIV, Issue 7, p. 32-37, ISSN 0027-8068


The decrease of animal husbandry has affected the Czech agriculture and countryside

The agricultural production and proportions of agriculture, especially of animal husbandry decreased significantly in last decades. The national economic importance of the sector dropped – as measured by its share on GDP and employment. Nevertheless agriculture remains to be a natural employer of rural inhabitants - and most farmers in the CR still live in rural communities. Particularly smaller villages in areas with the utilizable agricultural land are substantially connected to agricultural production. The leverage of agricultural subjects in the rural society is weakening adequately to decrease of agricultural employment.

Spěšná, D., Drlík, J.

Náš chov, 2014, Vol. LXXIV, Issue 8, p. 8-10, ISSN 0027-8068


The Economics and Market of Milk in the EU in a Global Context

The aim of this article is to evaluate the position of the EU in the world concerning the dairy production and trade of dairy products, and to forecast it to the near future. This is done based on measurements of the economic performance of typical dairy farms. The article compares the recent evolution of prices in the main world dairy production countries and exports of dairy products from these countries, as well as the performance of typical dairy farms of these countries. It identifies some competitive advantages of the EU in dairy production.

Bošková, I.

Náš chov, 2014, Vol. LXXIV, Issue 9, p. 34-38, ISSN 0027-8068


The Economics of Typical Dairy Farms in the EU

The aim of this article is to describe the economic position of Czech typical dairy farmers in competition with farmers in other EU countries. For the purpose of comparing the economic positions of different producers and production technologies, 30 typical farms from 13 EU countries were chosen according to the concept of typical farms. From these two are typical Czech dairy corporate farms and one is a typical Czech family farm. The economics of chosen farms is analyzed using the indicators of cost rentability, price of milk, and total revenues from dairy production as well as direct payments. According to the results of the analyses some recommendations for the dairy producers are suggested.

Bošková, I.

Náš chov, 2014, Vol. LXXIV, Issue 12, p. 20-25, ISSN 0027-8068


Pigmeat market in the Czech Republic and economic situation in pig fattening

The article describes the evolution of the pigmeat market in the Czech Republic in the period 2007-2012 including both the pig breeding and the use of pigmeat including its consumption. The article thoroughly analyses the primary production part of the sector, that is the structure of enterprises, the evolution of pig population, and the production and use of pigmeat including its consumption. It also describes in detail the evolution of the international trade with pigs, pigmeat and products from pigmeat in the period 2007-2012. At the same time compares the situation in the pigmeat sector in the Czech Republic with selected EU countries. Then the economics of production of pigmeat in the Czech Republic in the period 2008-2012 is evaluated in detail followed by a comparison of the whole sector in the international competition.

Abrahamová, M., Boudný, J.

Maso, 2014, Vol. XXV, Issue 1, p. 4-10, ISSN 1210-4086


Poultry market in the Czech Republic and economic situation in poultry fattening

In the Czech Republic, poultry-raising is associated with the production of poultry meat and eggs for consumption. The production of chicken meat predominates in poultry production. However, the production of chicken meat declined in recent years whereas the demand stayed steady. Therefore the self-sufficiency in chicken meat production was declining in the Czech Republic. But the share of chicken meat in total meat consumption was increasing, because of rival pork meat production declining. Balance of foreign trade in live poultry and poultry meat worsened. The sector was negatively influenced by poultry meat imports which share on domestic consumption increased. Territorial structure of foreign trade in poultry meat has not changed significantly in the Czech Republic and the prices of industrial producers of live chickens conform to the average prices in the EU countries in the long term. In the year 2013, the total numbers of poultry increased as well as export but production, consumption and import of poultry meat decreased. The global production of poultry meat is expected to rise in 2014. Similar trends in production are awaited in the EU although the prices seem to slump in comparison to 2013. In the poultry sector will remain keen competition at the European market in the short term, which will push on prices. Prices and costs of production are still the key to profitability of the poultry sector.

Teichmanová, J., Boudný, J.

Maso, 2014, Vol. XXV, Issue 4, p. 38-45, ISSN 1210-4086


Growing potatoes in the Czech Republic

In the Czech Republic in the marketing year 2013/2014 continued the downward trend in potato production areas. Production declined in total area (taking into account household areas) by 2.6 % to 29.3 thousand hectares. In order to reduce production area and yield per hectare of potatoes the potato production decreased by 19.6 % to 647 thousand tons.

Baudisová, H.

Farmář, 2014, Vol. 20, Issue 10, p. 22-24, ISSN/ISBN 1210-9789

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Alternative approaches to the prediction of EAA

The aim of this paper is to develop alternative approaches to modeling accounts for agriculture (EAA) for the needs of predictions of agricultural development in the country. In ÚZEI were designed two model approaches EAA P1 and EAA P2. Model EAA P1 consists of accounts individual agricultural commodities and draws on data from an existing model RENT 4 and part of sub-models STR (EAA P2). Model EAA P2 is formed regression calculations of seasonal trends of the ÚZEI Baseline. Both models have their own apparatus for predicting prices (CEN 1 and CEN 2) based on the CSO.

Foltýn, I., Zedníčková, I., Chaloupka, O.

Proceedings of the XXIIIth International Scientific Conference, 2014, CULS, FEM, p. 64-73, ISBN 978-80-213-2545-6

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Model FARMA 5 for economic and environmental optimization of agricultural holdings

At present, the increasing demands for farming in the direction of sustainability. These include strengthening the positive and eliminating the negative environmental impacts such as erosion, unwanted contamination of agricultural land etc.
For this purpose it was designed and approved by the Technology Agency CR project "Model FARMA 5 - Guidance optimization system for simulating the optimal behavior of agricultural enterprises in relation to the sustainability of agriculture and agricultural technologies in an environmentally friendly, with links to geographic information system".
The advisory system FARMA 5 consists of the following components: a mathematical model FARMA 5 for spatial optimization of production structures on the basis of soil blocks, created in the GAMS; model ERO 1 for the erosion hazard based on GIS based on classification BPEJ; models EMI 1, IMI 1, DEP 1 to determine the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to agricultural land through the balance of NPK.
The mathematical optimization model FARMA 5 calculates the optimal production structure of the company matching given inputs based on the variant task optimization, and economic optimization (maximization of profit enterprise, regardless of environmental constraints), one ecological optimization (maximization of company profits while taking into account the erosion hazard established model ERO 1), environmental optimization 2 (maximizing company profits while taking into account the balance of N in relation to the results of models EMI 1, IMI 1, DEP 1) and 3 environmental optimization (maximization of company profits with different combinations of organic optimization 1 and 2). The use of advisory system FARMA 5 is assumed as at the corporate level and decision-makers at the Ministry of Agriculture to simulate the impacts of future agricultural policy options.

Foltýn, I., Kučera, J., Trantinová, M., Voltr, V., Zedníčková, I., Pavka, P., Zapletal, M.

Proceedings of the XXIIIth International Scientific Conference, 2014, CULS, FEM, p. 74-86, ISBN 978-80-213-2545-6

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Development of food industry economy in 2007-2013

The paper discusses the development of the production characteristics sector, the economy of the sector and the competitiveness of the sector in the years 2007-2013 and its current development in 2014.

Mezera, J.

Potravinářská Revue, 2014, Issue 7, p. 77-79, ISSN 1801-9102

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Financial situation of Czech pig breeders in the period 2007-2013

The aim of the article is to evaluate financial situation of the Czech pig breeders in the period 2007-2013. Beyond the global aim, the article also provides a useful tool for financial benchmarking of Czech pig breeders. Financial analysis is based on data from financial statements provided by Bisnode Company. Dataset covers 58 pig breeders, legal persons only. Accounting data are evaluated through financial ratio indicators (profitability, liquidity, capital structure and cash conversion cycle), indicators of labour productivity and investment activity. Results reveal that financial situation of Czech pig breeders is getting better. After long period in loss, pig breeders became profitable in 2012 (return on total assets was 3.6 %) and 2013 (return on total assets was 2.3 %). However, there is a big gap in quality and quality and strategy of financial management between pig breeders in 25th and 75th quartile. Top pig breeders have approximately four times higher labour productivity than the worst quarter on average.

Špička, J.

Research in Pig Breeding, Vol. 8, 2014, Issue 2, p. 20-25, print: ISSN 1802-7547, online: ISSN 1803-2303

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