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Articles - year 2016

Czech foreign trade with meat and meat products

Meat and meat products are fundamental components of the human alimentation. “Butcher” as a branch of study has a long history in the Czech Republic. Besides, meat and meat products are substantial parts of the domestic food industry. Unfortunately, the industry faces several problems - imports of these commodities from neighbour countries have increased in the long terms, and interest of young people to be engaged in this branch has decreased. After the accession of the Czech Republic to the EU, low competitiveness of the Czech meat processors has been shown in increasing deficit of the trade balance. The goal of this article is to analyse, in detail and in the long period, the development and the structure of Czech foreign trade with meat and meat products, including the trade with live animals and food products. Further, the article also identifies the product groups with and without the comparative advantage.

Pohlová, K., Mezera, J., Špička, J.

Acta Oeconomica Pragensia. Volume 24, Number 02. 2016, s. 63-80. Online ISSN 1804-2112

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The Commodification of the Rural and the Construction of Regional Identity

This paper focuses on the commodification and marketisation of Czech rural areas and on the consequences these processes have for regional identities. Through a case study of a Local Action Group (LAG), the paper traces the construction of rurality and the ways in which rurality is employed as an identity tool and a market commodity. The study is grounded in a constructivist approach in rural sociology, emphasising the multiplicity of meanings ascribed to the rural by stakeholders. The study highlights the identity politics produced by rural development programmes and the implications these have for defining regional borders and for the very notion of ‘rurality’. Commodification gives rise to a sphere of cultural economics, whereby the past and natural and cultural heritage are sold on the market. The establishment of a certified brand of regional products is an important tool of cultural economics. Two layers of identity are traced in the study of this process (and of the activities of the LAG in general). The paper argues that the tension between the layers of marketised identity and quasi-natural identity reflects the tension between professional and lay discourses of rurality.

Delín, M., Pospěch, P.

Sociologický časopis / Czech Sociological Review 52 (2), p. 209-236. Online ISSN 2336-128X

The article is reproduced here.


Approaches Towards the Study of the Rural in Rural Sociology

This review paper presents a comprehensive summary of the various approaches towards the study of the rural in rural sociology. It starts with sociological classics Tönnies, Durkheim and Weber and proceeds through establishment of rural sociology as a separate discipline in the early 20th century USA and its post-war development in Europe to the present paradigmatic multitude. The review highlights the key contradictions between structural and cultural approaches on the one hand, and between basic and applied rural sociology on the other. In the final part, a brief review of the present Czech and Slovak rural sociology is presented.

Delín, M., Pospěch P.

Sociológia - Slovak Sociological Review 48 (1): 5-24. ISSN 1336-8613.

The article is reproduced here.


Migration motivation of agriculturally educated rural youth: The case of Russian Siberia

The migration of young people from rural areas is common in all agricultural regions of Russia, and Altai Krai, located in southwestern Siberia, is no exception. Out-migration, aversion to working in agriculture and the aging of farmers and farm managers are serious problems that raise questions about who will work in agriculture in the future. This paper aims to investigate factors that affect the decisions of agricultural students from Altai Krai to out-migrate or to return to their rural parental municipalities after finishing their university studies. We conducted a questionnaire survey of students at the Altai State Agrarian University in Barnaul and analyzed their migration intentions using a logit regression model. Migration motivation is studied in relation to personal and family background characteristics, employment expectations and quality of life, with a particular focus on references to agriculture. Our results show that the probability of leaving the parental municipality decreases if i) the respondent's parents support the study of agriculture, ii) the respondent's family owns agricultural land, iii) the respondent intends to work in agriculture, and iv) the respondent believes that it is not difficult to establish one's own business in the parental municipality. Women are more likely than men to leave their rural parental municipalities, and the probability of out-migration increases as respondents' life satisfaction increases. Our findings indicate that agricultural roots in the respondent's family stimulate young university graduates to return home and continue in the family tradition. Some of the factors that push young people, especially women, to out-migrate to cities (such as territorial isolation or the social roles of rural women) may be changed only over a long-term period.

Bednaříková, Z., Bavorová, M., Ponkina, E.

Journal of Rural, 2016, Volume 45, p. 99-111, ISSN 0743-0167


Shadow Prices of Selected Agricultural Commodities – The Czech Case

The main objective of the paper is to contribute to practical applicability of the CBA in the agricultural sector by exploring the chances to estimate Czech social values of selected agricultural commodities using available statistical data. More specifically, we try to analyse for which commodities secondary data sets are available from which we may deduce the estimates of shadow price ratios, then to estimate SPRs for selected agricultural commodities and to analyse and discuss the applicability of such estimates in practical appraisal with respect to theoretically ideal measures and resulting available measures as well as with respect to the situation in which the CBA analyst typically is. We selected the following commodities: poultry, pigs, bulls, milk, rapeseed, maize, barley and wheat as items more suitable for SPR estimates mostly because of the data availability and the internal homogeneity of the items, which was closer to the theoretically required values than for other commodities. Under additional simplifying assumptions, we estimated SPR proxies for the particular commodities and finally summarized the pros and cons for application of SPR alternatives.

Chaloupka, O., Pohlová, K., Sieber, P.

Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, 2016, Volume 24, Nr. 5, p. 60-73, ISSN 0572-3043



Sustainable consumption of bakery products; a challenge for Czech consumers and producers

The objective of this paper is to investigate the level of bakery product wastes in Czech households, economic, social and institutional factors which affect bakery products consumption and wastes and which role producers, retailers and consumers themselves play in it. The research deploys quantitative assessment of the relationship between prices, income and consumed quantities and qualitative assessment (surveys and focus groups) of opinions and attitudes of consumers, producers and retailers to wastes. To do the analysis we consider the model of social practices. We addressed a sample made by 260 respondents. The results suggest the actual wastes of bakery products are relatively low (less than 5%), because of quite large recoverability of bread and roll surpluses in households. The critical issue for bread and rolls consumption is quality and “freshness”. The notion of freshness of bakery products has changed since the mid of the 1990s. Furthermore, the food is not considered to be wasted when it is either used as a feeding or composted. The norms on handling with bread in households are likely not as strong as in the past, nevertheless, most of the participants in the focus groups agreed that bread is food which should not be wasted.

Bošková, I., Ratinger, T., Tomka, A.

Agricultural Economics, 2016, Volume 62, Nr. 10, p. 447-458, ISSN 0139-570X




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