Articles - year 2018

Comparison of Agricultural Costs Prediction Approaches

The paper submitted offers an assessment and comparison of three approaches to agricultural cost inputs short-term forecasting, that have been proposed as possible alternatives to tackle the problem. The data applied have been taken from the Czech Statistical Office and the Farm Accountancy Data Network data sources. The forecasts were prepared using time series analyses based on methods of exponential smoothing and Box-Jenkins methodology of autoregressive integrated process moving averages. The proposed change index numbers for the 2012, 2013 and 2014 years from three approaches were confronted with the real development of costs time series as it was found in the statistical FADN survey results. The main conclusion drawn pointed out that, for the purpose of economic income estimation based on the FADN database, the cost prediction approach based on the same database, i.e., on time series analysis of the FADN panel data, is the most applicable one. However, it is recommended, too, to use other approaches for crops protection products cost and labour cost development.

Ženíšková, P., Hloušková, Z., Prášilová, M.

AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2018, Volume 10, Nr.1, s. 3-13, ISSN 1804-1930 https://online.agris.cz/archive/2018/1/01

 

Czech Agrarian Foreign Trade According to the Degree of Processing

Added value of Czech agrarian trade is a frequently discussed topic. The goal of the New Strategy of the Ministry of Agriculture with the outlook until 2030 and of the Export Strategy of the Czech Republic for 2012-2020 is to improve the commodity structure of Czech agrarian exports and to increase the proportion of exported processed products and food with high added value. One of the key aspects to understanding the current state of the development of agrarian trade added value is methodology used for trade performance analysis. In fact, there are several methodologies related to attempts to estimate the real state of added value distribution in relation to foreign trade performance. None of the methods seems flawless, each is suitable for a different purpose in understanding the commodity structure specifics. Czech authorities apply methodology originally proposed by Regmi (2005) which, however, does not truly reflect the real state of the current commodity structure. The Research Institute of Agricultural Economics and Informatics is interested in developing its own method suitable for better understanding of the Czech agrarian foreign trade specifics. The objective of this paper is to specify the basic idea of the proposed methodology, to compare it with the already applied methodology and to present basic differences between the old and the new approaches. Presumably, the new classification can serve as a suitable tool for Czech agrarian trade analysis and provides a more precise overview of the degree of processing of traded commodities than other types of categorisation. Its advantages prevail over the disadvantages, which are less important. The new classification of unprocessed and processed products requires regular inspection and more frequent updates, as the 8-digit codes of the customs nomenclature continually change. At the end of the paper the agricultural trade performance is calculated according to the currently applied methodology and also according to the new proposed methodology. The results between both applied approaches are significant especially in mutual relation between processed and unprocessed items share in total trade. There are significant differences both in relation to EU countries and also non-EU countries.

Pohlová, K., Laputková, A., Smutka, L., Svatoš, M.

AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2018, Volume 10, Nr.3, s. 102-118, ISSN 1804-1930

https://online.agris.cz/archive/2018/3/9

 

EuroFIR Guideline on calculation of nutrient content of foods for food business operators

This paper presents a Guideline for calculating nutrient content of foods by calculation methods for food business operators and presents data on compliance between calculated values and analytically determined values. In the EU, calculation methods are legally valid to determine the nutrient values of foods for nutrition labelling (Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011). However, neither a specific calculation method nor rules for use of retention factors are defined. EuroFIR AISBL (European Food Information Resource) has introduced a Recipe Calculation Guideline based on the EuroFIR harmonized procedure for recipe calculation. The aim is to provide food businesses with a step-by-step tool for calculating nutrient content of foods for the purpose of nutrition declaration. The development of this Guideline and use in the Czech Republic is described and future application to other Member States is discussed. Limitations of calculation methods and the importance of high quality food composition data are discussed.

Macháčková, M., Finglas, P., Giertlová, A., Porubská, J., Ramos, C., Roe, M.

Food Chemistry, 2018, Volume 238, Nr. 1, s.  35-41, ISSN 0308-8146

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814617304855

 

Impact of Employee Development in Agricultural Companies on Commitment, Loyalty and Performance

Employees in agricultural companies are aware of the necessity to learn and develop; hence it is essentially easier for the agricultural companies to encourage their employees to engage in these processes. Regardless the awareness of the employees concerning the development, the organisational features of the agricultural companies, which influence the development of the employees, needs to be taken into account. The aim of the paper is to identify the attitude of surveyed agriculture organisations towards employee development and to evaluate possible use of employee development strategies impacting employee commitment, loyalty and performance. Data were collected by means of quantitative research in selected number of agricultural companies (n=101) in the Czech Republic, while the data were evaluated by descriptive (correlation) analysis and multidimensional statistics (factor analysis). Results show that employee development foster commitment, loyalty and performance. The results were able to classify the HR systems of the case organisations into six types according to factor analysis: external HR marketing, internal development, investments into development, increased loyalty and competitiveness, increased understanding and finally, increased retention based on loyalty and commitment. Furthermore, smaller companies often lack formal development. On the contrary, large and micro companies have exact practices and outputs related to it.

Urbancová, H., Vnoučková, L.

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 2018, Volume 66, Nr. 3, s. 803-811, ISSN 1211-8516

https://acta.mendelu.cz/66/3/0803/

 

Impact of Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Meat Processing Companies

The paper deals with the technical efficiency analysis of meat processors in the Czech Republic and evaluates an impact of subsidies on companies’ technical efficiency. Albertina database which collects accounting data of the Czech meat processors was used for the empirical analysis for the programming period 2007-2013. Subsidies data was collected from the public register of recipients of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic. In total, 207 meat processors were analysed. The methodological approach taken in this study is based on translogarithmic production function and Stochastic Frontier Analysis. True Random Effects model, and Battese and Coelli model were used to evaluate the impact of subsidies on technical efficiency. The results of both used methods indicate positive impact of subsidies on meat processors technical efficiency. Material input displays the highest elasticity; the lowest elasticity belongs to production factor Capital. Technical change has a positive impact on production.

Náglová, Z., Rudinskaya, T.

AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2018, Volume 10, Nr.1, s. 61-70, ISSN 1804-1930

https://online.agris.cz/archive/2018/1/06

 

Investment Subsidies in the Meat Industry and Their Impact on Business Economics

This article deals with meat industry subsidies in the Czech Republic. Food processing businesses are entitled to draw funds from the Rural Development Program 2007-2013 (RDP), Axis I, Measure I. 1. 3 Adding value to agricultural and food products. The aim of this paper is to assess whether there were any changes in performance indicators in subsidized meat businesses and to identify their effects on the meat industry. Competitiveness of meat industry is low. Subsidies are among other factors that can help to reach for better competitiveness of this branch. The fixed effect model was used in order to carry out the analysis. According to the results, subsidized meat enterprises did not display any increase in business performance (no increase in labour productivity, value added growth in the supported firm were found) and cannot be considered as a key factor of competitiveness. There was a positive impact on the number of employees and the value of fixed assets in the year the subsidies were drawn. However, the effective use of workers and property did not reflect other performance indicators in the year of drawing.

Náglová, Z.

Central European Business Review, 2018, Volume 7, Nr.1, s. 37-45, ISSN 1805-4862

https://cebr.vse.cz/artkey/cbr-201801-0003_Investment-Subsidies-in-the-Meat-Industry-and-Their-Impact-on-Business-Economics.php

 

Soil productivity and its relation to the environment in the Czech Republic

Based on the evaluation of data from agricultural operations of 60 enterprises in the period 2012–2016 on 339 516 ha, frequent increases in nutrient dosages for production are mainly in marginal areas where higher production than is equivalent to optimal production on the soil is required. In the production of crops, it is most manifest in the production of feed crops, which are often used for the continuous flow of livestock production and biogas stations. Because of the above-standard utilization of fertilizers, yields rise above the level corresponding to the standard conditions for soil–climatic conditions, but also to decrease the efficiency of fertilizer utilization and thus to overload the optimal soil productivity. In contrast, the standard use of fertilizers is reflected in winter wheat, grain corn, triticale, potatoes and rye. Because of the lower strength of the humus horizon in marginal areas, it can be assumed that by increased fertilization, the agricultural enterprises solve the lower sorption capacity of the soil. The overall finding is also a warning to the occupation of quality land for non-agricultural purposes because their intensification cannot be transferred into marginal areas with no environmental impact.

Hruška, M., Voltr, V., Klír, J.

IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 2018, Volume 185, s.13, ISSN 1755-1315

https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/185/1/012021

 

Success Factors for Start-ups Related to Agriculture, Food and Nutrition and Their Relevance to Education

Continuous formation of new businesses, start-ups, which could establish themselves on the market and be successful, should be supported in all economic areas, and the area of agriculture is no exception. Thus the main aim of this paper is to formulate a recommendation for educational institutions which prepare future generations, among others, to establish start-ups in agriculture that reflect fundamental success factors. The data were acquired with the aid of structured interviews (n = 6), which were carried out in electronic form. The respondents agreed that they considered the greatest obstacle, and at the same time challenge, to be the entry into the unknown, and that fear of failure in the context of an enterprise in the area of agriculture, food and nutrition has arrived only in the last few years, when loans, employees and obligations are on the rise.

Urbancová, H., Kubová, P., Smolová, H.

Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 2018, Volume 66, Nr. 3, s. 791-801, ISSN 1211-8516

https://acta.mendelu.cz/66/3/0791/

 

What are the motivation and barriers of young farmers to enter the sector?

Ensuring the generation renewal in the agriculture is crucial. There are policy incentives to attract young people, but the motivation to enter the sector depend on many factors and there are also barriers. The aim of the paper is to assess the motivation and barriers of the young farmers, newcomers to the agrarian sector in the Czech Republic and to draft the conclusions for policy and incentives creation. Based on answers of 510 young farmers, the main motive to enter was the wish to continue with farming on the farm of the parents or other relatives and to work in nature and with animals. The hardest was to purchase the agricultural land, administrative burden and ensuring the finances for the development and for start-up. Hence, to facilitate the start-up it is useful to support the land purchase and provide investment subsidies. The research was financed from internal research project 1113/2018. © 2018 Faculty of Economics and Management.

Delín, M., Medonos, T., Spěšná, D., Šimpachová Pechrová, M., Šimpach, O.

AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics, 2018, Volume 10, Nr.4, s. 79-87, ISSN 1804-1930

https://online.agris.cz/archive/2018/4/9

 

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